Architecture, History & Planning

This segment contains the following Indicators available to order.

Architecture History & Planning

Architectural Layering

Architectural complexity and layering of a city (architects refer to this as ‘grain’), balancing preservation and new building.

Decorative Features

Presence of a decorative features in buildings, and related sectors (stone masonry, carpentry, sculpture, street art).

Green Architecture

Cutting edge green buildings, experimental or new sustainable building designs.


Quality of decentralised neighbourhoods that are walkable and interconnected.

Other options:

Data Points within these indicators are also available for separate order.



The age of the city since its first major urban/population incarnation, with older cities having higher tourism value.